What is Ophthalmology ?

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. All evaluations that purport to diagnose eye disease should be carried out by a physician. An ophthalmologist is a doctor of medicine who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye, in addition to diagnosing systemic disease that manifest in eye signs or symptoms. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists.

The word 'ophthalmology' comes from the Greek roots 'ophthalmos', meaning eye and 'logos' meaning word, thought, or discourse. Ophthalmology literally means 'the science of eyes'. Ophthalmology treatment in India is one of the world's best. Trained medical practioners study and practice this branch of medicine in top hospitals of the country.

Opthamology Treatments

Using state-of-the-art technology, Ophthalmology treatments in India cover numerous eye conditions, including cataracts, retinal diseases, glaucoma and other vision related disorders. The most common treatments of Ophthalmology in India are:

  • LASIK Surgery
  • Vitrectomy
  • Cataract
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Cornea
  • Glaucoma
  • Refractive errors
  • Occuloplasty
  • Cornea
  • IOL
  • Ptosis correction surgery
  • Pediatric Opthalmology

Other eye surgery

  • Oculoplasty and Orbit
  • Cornea transplant
  • Pterygium removal surgery
  • Eye muscle surgery
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Retinal surgery
  • Cornea and refractive surgery

Neuro Ophthalmology

The Neuro ophthalmology is a special branch of medicine that deals large number of optic nerve disorders and neurological disorders. Many ophthalmic diseases are linked with neurologic disorders like strokes, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis. The disorder results in many visual problems such as double vision and blurred vision. Neuro Ophthalmology involves neurosurgery, neurology, Neuroradiology and ophthalmology. Generally Neuro-ophthalmology disorders requires the specialized care of physicians, neuro-ophthalmologists, radiologists, neurosurgeons and specifically general neurologists.

Treatment for Retinal Diseases and Retinal Detachment

Ophthalmology treatments in India also deal with degenerative conditions that affect the retina, the part of the eye responsible for forming images. When the retina deteriorates or becomes detached from the back of the eye, immediate treatment is needed to halt the progression of the disorder.

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration affects the macula, the central area of the retina. The disease occurs when the macular tissue deteriorates or when abnormal blood vessels develop in the macula. Over time, these problems causes blurred or distorted vision. While macular degeneration cannot be cured, it can be managed with low-vision aids and other medical, laser, and surgical treatments, depending on the degree of degeneration.

Macular Holes

A macular hole is a small opening in the macula, which is located in the center of the retina. Fluid that is inside the eye may leak through the hole, causing blurred and distorted vision. Some macular holes heal themselves, while others require surgery to repair the hole; our surgeons will diagnose the severity of the problem and recommend the appropriate treatment by an ophthalmologist.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Ophthalmology deals with treatment of diabetic patients who are more prone to having retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy is a degenerative disease that damages the retinal blood vessels, thus inhibiting the retina's ability to transmit images. Symptoms range from mild blurred vision to total loss of vision. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy depends on how far the disease has progressed and can include laser treatment of the blood vessels.

Retinal Detachment

When the retina becomes separated from the back of the eye because of injury, disease, or other causes, retinal detachment has occurred. Patients experiencing the symptoms of retinal detachment – sudden flashes of light, spots in the visual field, hazy vision, or the sensation of a curtain closing over the eyes – should seek treatment immediately to prevent permanent vision loss. Treatment options, including laser surgery or insertion of devices to hold the retina in place, depend on the degree of detachment.

Glaucoma Treatment

Glaucoma is a progressive condition that can damage the eye's optic nerve, potentially resulting in vision loss and blindness. If left untreated, damage to the optic nerve can cause irreversible vision loss. Although glaucoma is not curable, the disease and its symptoms can be managed medically, with laser treatment, or surgically.


Selective laser trabeculoplasty uses a YAG laser to focus light energy on the internal drainage channel of the eye. SLT targets the pigmented (melanin-containing) cells in the trabecular meshwork using a very short application of light. Because SLT uses a low amount of energy, the surrounding tissue is not damaged. The treatment allows the drain to work more efficiently, successfully lowering eye pressure more than 80 percent of the time.


When medication and laser methods fail to lower intraocular pressure, filtration surgery may be the best option. This conventional glaucoma surgery improves drainage by creating a flap in the outer layers of the eye. To begin, the doctor applies either topical or local anesthesia. When the eyes are numb, the doctor surgically creates the flap.

Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology that deals with diseases that affect the area around the eye. Oculoplastic surgeons also specialize in cosmetic surgery of the face and eye area. They perform a wide range of oculoplastic surgical treatments and procedures, including:

  • Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery to remove excess skin and fat
  • Periocular rejuvenation surgery
  • Reconstruction following Mohs surgery (skin cancer removal)
  • Ectropion surgery (to correct an eyelid rolled out away from the eye)
  • Entropion surgery (to correct an eyelid and lashes rolled in towards the eye)
  • Ptosis repair (to correct a droopy upper eyelid)
  • Eyelid retraction repair (to correct white showing above or below the iris)
  • Eyelid trauma & tumor surgery
  • Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) (tear drainage system reconstruction)
  • Conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy (C-DCR) (tear drainage system reconstruction)
  • Nasolacrimal (tear drainage system) intubation with silicone tubes
  • Punctal and canalicular (tear duct) repair/reconstruction
  • Orbital trauma surgery & tumor removal/biopsy
  • Enucleation/Evisceration (removal of a blind eye)
  • Orbital implants
  • Eye socket reconstruction

What is Gastroenterology ?

Gastroenterology is primarily concerned with the digestive diseases. It focuses on the treatment of diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract involving stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, esophagus, large intestine and small intestine. A Gastroenterologist properly diagnoses and treats the diseases of the digestive system.

Who should consider Gastroenterology Surgery ?

Weight loss and change in bowel habit are the alarming symptoms for gastroenterology. Apart from these, there are some conditions where the patient is required to consult a specialist –

  • Constipation
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood in the stool
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or Acid Reflux

Gastroenterology Disorders

The organs affected by gastrointestinal system

  • Bowel and colon cancers
  • Biliary tract disease
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Cholecystitis
  • Gastric cancers
  • Hepatitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Colon polyps
  • Esophageal cancers
  • Cancer and gall bladder stones
  • Achalasia
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Malabsorption and nutritional problems
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux

Types of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Different types of gastrointestinal surgery can treat the following conditions that can improve quality of life of for many patients. Some of these conditions include –

  • Mediastinal masses
  • Achalasia
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPR)
  • Paraesophageal hernias, hiatal hernias and ventral hernias
  • Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) or severe heartburn
  • GIST and other stomach tumors
  • Esophageal disease
  • Anorectal disease including rectal prolapse, incontinence
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
  • Enterocutaneous fistula and short bowel syndrome

The extent and type of GI (Gastrointestinal Surgery) largely depend upon the location and the size of the cancer. Gastrointestinal surgery could be the only treatment and can also be performed along with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Gall Bladder Surgery : Surgery is used for treating the early stages of gallbladder cancers.

Stomach Cancer : Gastrectomy is the procedure by which the stomach cancer is treated. Partial gastrectomy is used for removing a part of the stomach. The remaining part of the stomach is connected with esophagus to the small intestine.

Liver Cancer : Hepatectomy is the surgical procedure for removing the parts of liver. 80% of the liver can be removed if the rest liver tissue is healthy. The left part of the liver helps in proper functioning of the liver.

Pancreatic Cancer : Whipple procedure is used for treating pancreatic cancer in order to remove the first part of the small intestine, head of the pancreas, part of the stomach and the bile duct. The tail and body of the spleen and the pancreas can be removed with the help of a distal pancreatectomy procedure.

Esophageal Cancer : A part or the entire esophagus can be removed with the help of esophagectomy procedure. This is done for treating the esophageal cancer.

Colorectal Cancer : The removal of the rectum or a segment of the colon and the 2 remaining ends are reconnected for the purpose of treating the colorectal cancer. The colostomy is the rare procedure by which a new path is created for taking out the waste products. An opening is made in the abdomen for connecting the opening with the intestine. A bag is then fitted in the opening in order to collect the waste.

Gastroenterology Diseases and Treatments

Diseases of the Small Intestine

  • Obscure bleeding and Diverticulosis
  • Mal Absorption Syndrome
  • Tuberculosis

Diseases of the Duodenum and Stomach

  • Fungal Infections
  • Ulcers
  • Cancer

Diseases of the Gall Bladder

  • Cancer of the Bladder
  • Cholecystitis
  • Cholecystitis

Diseases of the Colon

  • Tuberculosis
  • Cancer and Diverticulosis
  • Inflammatory Bowl Disease

Diseases of the Pancreas

  • Pseudo Pancreatic Cyst
  • Chronic Pancreatitis
  • Acute Pancreatitis
  • Acute Pancreatitis

Diseases of the Esophagus

  • Achalasia Cardia
  • Achalasia Cardia
  • Achalasia Cardia
  • Malignant and benign strictures

Diseases of the Liver

  • Acute Hepatitis
  • Amoebic Abscess
  • Chronic Hepatitis
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cirrhosis

Gastroenterology Surgery Procedures

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) : Here a camera and a long flexible tube with a light along with an endoscope at the end of it is used. This is done through the stomach, the esophagus and the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The dye is injected through the common bile duct when an endoscope reaches the papilla (the opening of the common bile duct). This process enables the physician to take x-rays. The procedure is meant for those who develops jaundice or experience abdominal pain. Scar tissue that is blocking the bile duct, tumors or gallstones can be easily identified through this procedure.

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy : This procedure enables the physician to study the sigmoid colon from inside. The colon (the large bowel) is gastrointestinal tracts’s last portion. The section of the colon closest to the anus and rectum is known as the sigmoid. The sigmoid colon is 20 inches of the colon which is 4 feet in length. The basic function of the colon is to store the byproducts of the food till they get eliminated. The purpose of flexible sigmoidoscopies is to assess the changes in bowel habits, blood loss and pain.

Colonoscopy : The large bowel, also referred to as colon, is the gastrointestinal tracts’s last portion. Colonoscopy is the procedure where a colonoscope is used for examining the colon. While inserting the scope, a small amount of air is put inside the colon. The physician can take pictures of the colon and can also guide the colonoscope throughout the length of the colon. The procedure is used for evaluating abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits and blood loss. The procedure is performed in the prevention and screening of colorectal cancer.

Capsule Endoscopy : The procedure is useful in examining the complete small intestine. A vitamin pill- sized video capsule is ingested having its own light source and camera. The images are then sent by the video capsule that is travelling through the entire body. The images then can be seen on the waist belt which the patient is wearing having a data recorder. The procedure helps in determining the persistent or recurrent symptoms like anemia bleeding, abdominal pain or diarrhea that cannot be diagnosed with the techniques of x-rays, endoscopy and colonoscopy.

Liver Biopsy : The procedure is used for determining any presence of fibrosis, inflammation and is also used for diagnosing the liver diseases.

Endoscopic Untrasonography (EUS) : The procedure is used for examining the lower or upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gallbladder and pancreas are the internal organs that can also be examined through this procedure.

Double Balloon Enteroscopy : The procedure is performed for examining small intestine where the earlier techniques are not able to reach. A high resolution video endoscope is used having latex balloons. These balloons are attached at the tips and can be deflated and inflated with air through a system of pressure controlled pump. Deflation or inflation cycles help in advancing more into the small intestine. The procedure is used for Crohn’s disease, gastrointestinal bleeding and unexplained diarrhea.

Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy : This procedure in concerned with the upper part of the GI (Gastrointestinal tract) that includes stomach, duodenum and esophagus. The procedure is performed for diagnosing and evaluating the problems like abdominal or stomach pain, tumors and ulcers, bleeding, difficulty in swallowing and chronic heartburn.

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